Monday, April 16, 2018

Alvin Etler and Pinky Lee


Pinky Lee
Today we studied Alvin Etler's Brass Quintet, which is considered one of the greatest works for brass quintet of the 20th Century. Some of the notable features of this work include:

1. The first three movements all end with a single voice (I. with a ppp trill in the 2nd trumpet, II. Horn statement (of the first three "dots" of S.O.S), III. 1st Trumpet on a ppp decrescendo. The fourth movement ends in one of the rare total homophonic statements of the S.O.S. theme - drawing even more attention to the conclusion.

2. Frequently, the music does not reflect the written meter and alludes to an alternate meter, much like the distorted reality in the artworks of of Dali and Escher. Like chromaticism, this may have been designed to disorient the listener.

3. Etler uses extended techniques (flutter tongue, half-valve, mutes) quite effectively.

4. Etler's rhythmic language is complex, and seems to be one of the central forces of the piece.

5. Like many modern composers, Etler utilized dissonant harmony, angular melodic material, and push the boundaries of range of the instruments, but to an effective end.


6. As I mentioned, there was a (very believable) rumor that the reason this piece sounds so angry and utilizes Morse Code is that Etler's son died in the Korean War. It's a fantastic story, but totally untrue, as this transcript of an email interchange between myself and Etler's grandson, Jim, confirms:

I am the grandson of Alvin Etler and I came across your blog mentioning him. I have a professional picture of him if you would like that i can e-mail to you. I am actually surprised there are no pictures of him on the web anywhere at all. Drop me a line if interested.
Jim,
 .....
Jim,  
One thing I wanted to clear up - Alvin's Brass Quintet, a work I make all my students study, is for many reasons remarkable. Sometimes in the void of information, people invent details. Many have heard that part of that quintet, which seems riddled with quotations from morse code, alludes to Etlers son, "who died in the Korean war". I have never seen or heard any evidence to that fact, but it makes for a romantic story. Is there any truth to it? If not, do you know of any influences of morse code in his life/writing? Thank you for your insight.--
- John
 .....
lol funny, but I know that information started on a CD cover. Imagine
my uncle's surprise that he found out he was dead in the Korean war when he was only about 10 years old. I don't know how that started, but my uncle is alive and well on Cape Cod. It has become a big family joke. That piece you are talking about with the morse code, it is "S.O.S." Another unknown fact on my grandfather is that he used to ghost-write for commercials and the like. He told my uncle that he wrote the theme song to the 1950's childrens show "The Pinky Lee Show". I wondered why he would have done that until i looked it up on you-tube and saw that the show was sponsored by Tootsie Roll. That theme song showes his humor. From what my mother says he had a great sense of humor. He was also able to tap out 3 different rhythms at once, one on his left foot, another on his right and then a third on his hands. Its hard to do, I know I have tried and its pretty much impossible.

Take care, Jim Etler
Check out the clip below of an episode of the Pinky Lee show to hear Etler's silly song:

Monday, April 09, 2018

Gagarara



Today in class, we listened to two video recordings of Gagarará by Spanish composer
Brian Martínez. This composition was the winning entry for the 2012 Isla Verde Bronces Festival in Argentina. The work is inspired by the chants of the Santero Carnival Festivities, and includes a haunting trumpet solo at the beginning and the end, an intensifying layering of poly-rhythms, and a primitive aesthetic and harmonies inspired by Stravinsky.

The premiere recording below was made in 2012 and the personnel included: Trumpets: Ron Rom, Paul Archibauld, Juan Pablo Mayor, Agustina Guidoli and Ivan Chunga; Horns: Frank Lloyd, César Ahumada; Trombones: Jacque Mauger, Carlos Ovejero, Ivan Barrios and Tuba: John Manning


The U.S. premier occured later that year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the Atlantic Brass Quintet Seminar. Members of the Triton Brass Quintet and the Atlantic Brass Quintet combine to form the Tritanic Brass Ensemble. The personnel included: Trumpets: Stephen Banzaert, Andrew Sorg, Louis Hanzlik, David Wharton; Horns: Shelagh Abate, Seth Orgel; Trombones: Tim Albright, Wes Hopper, Angel Subero and Tuba: John Manning


Monday, April 02, 2018

Brass Ensembles in Popular Music Genres

Since the earliest days of brass instruments, brass ensembles of some type have often been involved in popular music in some way. Whether they were part of Renaissance dance music, Civil War regimental brass bands, dixieland bands, part of big bands of the Swing Era, or rock and roll, brass ensembles have proven to be a versatile and sometimes unique addition to popular music.

Today in class we watched numerous videos for this YouTube playlist. Ranging from Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass to Pink Floyd and Germany's LaBrassBanda. Please share links to any videos or recordings of brass ensembles that fit withing this category. 

Finally, here is a link to a video of the 1970 premiere of Atom Heart Mother for comparison

Monday, March 26, 2018

Rube Goldberg Variations






Today in class we listened to Rube Goldberg Variations for brass quintet and prepared piano by Dmitri Tymoczko. This recording is of the Atlantic Brass Quintet with John Blacklow on piano. I mentioned that it was one of the most challenging projects that I had ever taken part in. The piece is incredible; often complex, frequently beautiful and occasionally humorous.


Dr. Tymoczko's biography from his website is below:

Dmitri Tymoczko was born in 1969 in Northampton, Massachusetts. He studied music and philosophy at Harvard University, and philosophy at Oxford University. He received his Ph.D in music composition from the University of California, Berkeley. He is currently a Professor of Music at Princeton, where he has taught composition and  theory since 2002. He lives in Philadelphia with his wife, Elisabeth Camp, who teaches philosophy at Rutgers University, their son Lukas, who was born in 2008, and their daughter Katya, born 2012.
Dmitri            Tymoczko. Photo credit: <a            href='http://www.peter-murphy.com'>Peter            Murphy</a>
Dmitri Tymoczko, Photo credit: Peter Murphy

His compositions are polystylistic and mercurial, drawing on genres from the Renaissance to rock. His music has been commissioned and performed by groups including the Amernet Quartet, the Atlantic Brass Quintet, the Brentano Quartet, the Corigliano Quartet, Flexible Music, Gallicantus, the Gregg Smith Singers, the Illinois Modern Ensemble, Janus Trio, the Kitchener/Waterloo symphony, Network for New Music, Newspeak, Pacifica Quartet, Synergy Vocal Ensemble, Third Coast Percussion Quartet, and Ursula Oppens. Among his awards are a Guggenheim fellowship, a Rhodes Scholarship, the Leonard Bernstein fellowship from Tanglewood, a fewllowship from the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and the Block lecturship from the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
His book A Geometry of Music (Oxford) has been described as "a tour de force" (The Times Literary Supplement), a "monumental achievement" (Music Theory Online), and, potentially, a modern analogue to Schoenberg’s Harmonielehre (The Musical Times). His three CDs, Beat Therapy ("far reaching yet utterly entertaining," Newmusicbox), Crackpot Hymnal ("ebullient … polystylistic … kinetic … vividly orchestrated and vibrantly paced," Sequenza21), and Rube Goldberg Variations ("foot tapping," "sassy," the product of "an intriguing musical voice that should interest anyone in search of a new auditory experience," Limelight), are available from Bridge Records. He is completing an album of rock-inspired pieces that mix electronics with acoustic instruments.
In addition to composing concert music, Dmitri enjoys playing rock and jazz and writing words. His articles have appeared in the American Mathematical Monthly, the Atlantic Monthly, Berfrois, Boston Review, Civilization, Integral, Journal of Music Theory, Lingua Franca, Music Analysis, Music Theory Online, Music Theory Spectrum, Science, Seed, and Transition. His article "The Geometry of Musical Chords" was the first music-theory article published in the 130-year history of Science magazine. He has been invited to speak to audiences of musicians, philosophers, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, physicists, and the general public; articles about his work have appeared in a variety of newspapers and magazines, including Time, Nature, and Physics Today.

Monday, March 05, 2018

Tomasi - Fanfares Liturgiques

Today we listened to recording of Fanfares Liturgique, by Henri Tomasi. As you heard, it is a very powerful, challenging, and well-crafted composition. The names of the movements are translated below, and as we discussed, the genre seems to be an "instrumental oratorio" - that is, a sacred brass choir version of a liturgical work. The orator could be represented by the trombone solo of the second movement. Note also the return of the triumphant first theme, possibly a motif for the Christ figure, returns in the final movement. I also was reminded in several passages of the works Stravinsky, Respighi, Bach, and Dukas. (See earlier post Tomasi and his Contemporaries)




This work was originally called Fanfares Concertantes and was part of his opera Don Juan de Mañera. This is the version which includes soprano soloists and choir. Here is a YouTube link to this scene from the opera.
  • I. Annonciation (Annunciation is the term describing the moment when the angel Gabriel declared Mary to be the mother of God)
  • II. Evangile (Gospel, or the word of God)
  • III. Apocalypse (Apocolypse, or revelation?) Four Horsemen who are listed as Pestilence (disease epidemic), War, Famine, Death
  • IV. Procession du Vendredi-Saint (Good Friday Procession, a Christian celebration commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus)


* Note: Location of image above is from Amazon.com

 Amazon incorrectly describes this product as a "Plaid double knit novelty suiting jacket"?!


Henri Tomasi: Don Juan de Manara
Price: $22.63 + $3.99 shipping
  • Dry Clean Only
  • Plaid double knit novelty suiting jacket
  • Fall 2013

Monday, February 26, 2018

Brass Partout

We heard Brass Partout's recording of the Böhme sextet today and I mentioned that although I liked their recording a lot, I didn't know anything about the group. I did find their website , which is only in German, and information about their recordings. If you are interested, I used Google translate to get a rough idea of what the website says. See below. 

Google translation of website pages:
Ensemble:

The continuous collaboration with the conductor and artistic director Hermann Bäumer led brass partout to the top of the German brass ensembles. In 1991, the members got to know each other while playing music together in the Federal Youth Orchestra and today they are engaged in renowned German orchestras. From the outset, brass partout demanded that its program design combine stylistically diverse works from different countries and epochs in thematic contexts. Based on original compositions, the repertoire is supplemented by own arrangements and world premieres of works written for brass partout.

The ensemble was u.a. to the Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival, the Rheingau Music Festival, the Heidelberg Spring and the Brandenburg Summer Concerts. The concert with brass partout was selected and broadcast for the RBB's annual TV report on the Brandenburg Summer Concerts. Depending on the program, the ensemble performs in different sizes: from a septet line-up, such as Sibelius, to the classic Tentett line-up, to a percussion-extended line-up of 16 or more musicians.

The Swedish label BIS engaged brass partout for its edition of original works for brass ensemble. With "Playgrounds for Angels" (BIS-CD-1054), brass partout presented its debut CD in 2000 with works by Einojuhani Rautavaara, Jean Sibelius, Edvard Grieg and Knut Nystedt. This was followed in 2003 by the CD "Nokturno" (BIS-CD-1274) with works by Anatol Liadov, Oskar Böhme, Alexander Glazunov, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Aram Khachaturian and Edison Denisov. In spring 2007, the new CD "Black Castles" (BIS-CD-1354) will be released with works by Edward Elgar, Arthur Butterworth, Derek Bourgeois, John Tavener, John Pickard and Mark-Anthony Turnage.

The continuous collaboration with the conductor and artistic director Hermann Bäumer led brass partout to the top of the German brass ensembles. In 1991, the members got to know each other while playing music together in the Federal Youth Orchestra and today they are engaged in renowned German orchestras. From the outset, brass partout demanded that its program design combine stylistically diverse works from different countries and epochs in thematic contexts. Based on original compositions, the repertoire is supplemented by own arrangements and world premieres of works written for brass partout.

The ensemble was u.a. to the Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival, the Rheingau Music Festival, the Heidelberg Spring and the Brandenburg Summer Concerts. The concert with brass partout was selected and broadcast for the RBB's annual TV report on the Brandenburg Summer Concerts.
Depending on the program, the ensemble performs in different sizes: from a septet line-up, such as Sibelius, to the classic Tentett line-up, to a percussion-extended line-up of 16 or more musicians.

The Swedish label BIS engaged brass partout for its edition of original works for brass ensemble. With "Playgrounds for Angels" (BIS-CD-1054), brass partout presented its debut CD in 2000 with works by Einojuhani Rautavaara, Jean Sibelius, Edvard Grieg and Knut Nystedt. This was followed in 2003 by the CD "Nokturno" (BIS-CD-1274) with works by Anatol Liadov, Oskar Böhme, Alexander Glazunov, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Aram Khachaturian and Edison Denisov. In spring 2007, the new CD "Black Castles" (BIS-CD-1354) will be released with works by Edward Elgar, Arthur Butterworth, Derek Bourgeois, John Tavener, John Pickard and Mark-Anthony Turnage.

Google Translation of Herman Baumer:

From the 2011/12 season, Hermann Bäumer has been chief conductor of the Philharmonic State Orchestra Mainz and general music director of the State Theater. Previously, he held the position of music director of the City of Osnabrück with enormous success 7 years. The excellent reputation that Hermann Bäumer has introduced its not only solid, but also extremely creative work, is reflected not only in the great public response and in praise of the specialized press, but also in a variety of guest conductor at home and abroad. Along with symphony Osnabrück received Hermann Bäumer 2009 ECHO Klassik in the category of symphonic recording of the 20th century for the first part of the complete recording of the symphonies by Josef Bohuslav Foerster. In August 2007, Hermann Bäumer conducted the same orchestra concerts to Tehran - thus appeared for the first time since 1979 a Western orchestra in Iran.

Engagements Hermann Bäumer 2011 among others already on Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra, the SWR Symphony Orchestra Baden-Baden and Freiburg, St. Gallen Symphony Orchestra for, the Robert Schumann Philharmonie Chemnitz or the Hofer Symphoniker. The National Youth Orchestra conducted Hermann Bäumer with Bruckner's Eighth Symphony on an extended tour of major German concert halls. The 2011/12 season at the Mainz State Theater Hermann Bäumer opened in September with the premiere of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde.

Born in Bielefeld Hermann Bäumer began six years ago, to play the piano. Later he also received violoncello and trombone lessons and then studied conducting in Detmold and Leipzig. From 1992 to 2003 he was a trombonist with the Berlin Philharmonic, with its brass ensemble he had a long-standing cooperation. Furthermore, Hermann Bäumer was among others at the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen, the Radio Symphony Orchestra of Oslo and the Bamberg Symphony Orchestra at the desk and was at festivals such as the Rheingau Music Festival and the Heidelberg Spring guest. A special highlight was a Berlin performance of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire with Christine Schäfer.

In addition, Hermann Bäumer is the nation's most prized for its youth work, which manifests itself in working with numerous youth orchestras such as the National Youth Orchestra, the country's youth orchestras North Rhine-Westphalia, Berlin and Rhineland-Palatinate. With the latter, he went in October 2007 on tour in France, Poland and Germany.

Has a special affinity Hermann Bäumer to exceptional musical and dramatic repertoire. So had in Osnabrück in 2005/06 Alex Nowitz 'Bestmannoper with great attention from the press and public premiered; and no less great attention Hans-Werner Henze Wundertheater and 2007/08 Gounod's La nun Sanglante was in the 2004/05 season on the board.

With the NDR Radio Philharmonic Hermann Bäumer took 2006 August Enna's Hot love for CPO, and with the Iceland Symphony Orchestra Jón Leif Edda I for the BIS label. Additional recordings includes the first recording of the said Wundertheater by Henze with the Osnabrück Symphony and Sinfonien Nos. 1 and 2 of Karl Holler with the Bamberg Symphony. Another project is the complete recording of the symphonies by Josef Bohuslav Foerster with the Osnabrück Symphony Orchestra, the first part was awarded an ECHO Klassik in 2009. The second part was published in January 2009 (MDG). In December 2009, d'Albert Seejungfräulein and Symphony, Op. 4 and appeared in summer 2010, Gounod's La nun Sanglante who was awarded the Prize of the German Record Critics 3/2010 (CPO).

Hermann Bäumer will represent classic Agency PR2.
www.pr2classic.de

Google tranlation of Musiker (Musicians):
 
Markus Finkler - principal trumpeter of the Magdeburg Philharmonic Yosemeh Adjei trumpet player in the Cologne Radio Orchestra
Raphael Mentzen trumpet player in the Deutsches Symphonie Orchester Berlin
Martin Hommel - trumpeter in the Philharmonic Orchestra Heidelberg
Mario Schlumpberger - trumpeter in the Philharmonic State Orchestra Hamburg
Jochen Ubbelohde - solo horn in the Saxon Staatskapelle Dresden
Jörg Brückner - solo horn of the Dresdner Philharmonie
Julius Rönnebeck - horn player in the Saxon Staatskapelle Dresden
Andreas Klein - solo soprano in the Deutsches Symphonie Orchester Berlin
Tobias Unger - solo soprano is on the Radio Symphony Orchestra Stuttgart of the SWR
Axel Maucher - freelance trombonist in Kempten
Nils M. Schinker - freelance trombonist and architect in Dresden
Ulrich Oberschelp - bass trombonist in the Wuppertal Symphony Orchestra
Thomas Keller - Tubist in the Staatskapelle Berlin
Alexander von Puttkamer - tubist in the Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks
Jan Schlichte - drummer of the Berliner Philharmoniker
Wieland Welzel - solo timpanist of the Berliner PhilharmonikerFrankfurter Rundschau

Saturday, February 24, 2018

Oskar Böhme Brass Sextet



Oskar Böhme (1870-1938)

On Monday we will listen to Oskar Böhme's Trompetensextett (Trumpet Sextet) in E-flat minor, op. 30. Published in 1907, the work was originally orchestrated for 1 cornet, 2 trumpets, "basstrompet in E-flat (Althorn)", "Trombone (Tenorhorn)", "Tuba hoch B. (Bariton)". Modern editions indicate an orchestration for 3 trumpets (with an alternate horn part substitute for 3rd trumpet), trombone or baritone (alternate for horn), trombone or baritone, and tuba. Most current recordings use this version. Below are some biographical excerpts about Böhme.

From Grove Online (article by Edward H. Tarr)
(b Potschappel, nr Dresden, Feb 24, 1870; d ?Chkalov, Ural region, ?1938). German cornettist and composer. He is thought to have trained with his father, Heinrich Wilhelm Böhme (b 1843), a music teacher, and from 1885 he toured as a soloist. From 1894 to 1896 he played in the orchestra at the Royal Hungarian Opera House, Budapest. Between 1896 and 1897 he studied composition with Jadassohn at the Leipzig Conservatory. He then moved to St Petersburg, playing in the Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra from 1897 to 1921, teaching in a musical college on Vasilyevskiy Island from 1921 to 1930, and playing in the Leningrad Drama Theatre orchestra from 1930 to 1934. Like many people of German origin, he was banished by Stalin to Chkalov (now Orenburg) and taught at a music school there from 1936 to 1938. The year of his death is uncertain; one eyewitness claims to have seen him at hard labour on the Turkmenian Channel in 1941. He composed 46 known works with opus numbers, including a lavishly Romantic concerto in E minor op.18 for trumpet in A (1899), which has remained in the repertory. His brother Max William (1861–?1928) played in the Royal Hungarian Opera House orchestra from 1889 to 1908 and was the first professor for trumpet at the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music from 1897 to 1908. He was also a member of the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra between 1891 and 1901; in 1908 he returned to his birthplace of Potschappel to open a music school.

From Brass Music Online:

Oskar Böhme
By Mikolaj Sluzewski

Oskar Böhme was one of the three German trumpeters – alongside Willy Brandt and Wilhelm Wurm – who at the turn of the 19th and 20th century happened to have a significant influence on Russian trumpet training, thus defining the role of the instrument in the European classical music for decades to follow.
While both the popularity of his works and Böhme himself suffered greatly from Stalinist repressions in 1930s, his compositions, written in the Romantic idiom, are being increasingly rediscovered and performed by orchestras, bands and solo artists all over the world.
Formative years and early career
Oskar Böhme was born on February 24, 1870, in Potschappel, a small town near Dresden, Germany, to a musical family of Wilhelm and Juliane Henriette Böhme. His father was a local musician, playing trumpet in a miners’ band and working as a music teacher in Dresden. Oskar as well as two out of his three brothers, Max William (called Willi) and Georg, learned to play trumpet from their father, and each of them went on to pursue a successful career in music, while the remaining third brother Benno became a wood sculptor.
From around the age of fifteen, Böhme began touring as a solo artist and probably played in smaller orchestras around Germany, including spa orchestras during summer seasons. Most of his activities in this period remain undocumented, however there are traces of his performances in the form of concert reviews from local newspapers reaching as far as Helsinki in September 1889. Oskar was also reported to have played together with his older brother Willi in Bayreuth in August of 1892.

Some sources suggest that Oskar studied trumpet and composition in the Leipzig Conservatory of Music until graduating in 1888, but it is probably not true. A more likely scenario says that during his traveling period Böhme took lessons from professor Gurlitt in Hamburg and Horovitz in Berlin, and later from professor Hertzfeld in Budapest.

From Budapest to Leipzig
It is said that in 1894 Böhme relocated to Budapest, where he joined his older brother Willi in the Royal Hungarian Opera House orchestra. Willi, who had settled in Budapest in 1889, went on to become the first trumpet professor at the National Hungarian Royal Music Academy (currently known as Franz Liszt Music Academy) in 1897, while Oskar left the city in 1896 to enter the Leipzig Conservatory – the same school another famous trumpeter and Böhme’s equal Eduard Seifert graduated in 1894.
Böhme, who by the time had already been an established trumpet player himself, attended the Conservatory for a year from 2 November 1896 to 1 December 1897 to study music theory, composition and piano – he was assessed “absolute beginner” as a pianist by one of his teachers, who nevertheless noted that Oskar shown great progress, developing proper technique and working command of the instrument to complement his overall impressive music skills.

From Böhme’s Leipzig period come a couple of his first original compositions. It is documented that two lieder and a scherzo for two trumpets and piano written by Böhme were performed during student recitals, on 7 May and 26 November 1897, respectively. Another early work, entitled “Prealudium, Fuge und Choral” for two trumpets, horn, and trombone was performed by Leipzig Conservatory students in 1898, after Böhme had already left the school.
Imperial Russia to Soviet Union
At the time of prosperity of German classical music schooling, the level of musical training in Russia was dramatically falling. It was then decided to attract prominent foreign musicians by offering them academic careers and performing opportunities that Western-European countries were becoming short of. Conservatories in Moscow and St. Petersburg were created in the 1860s by the initiative of Anton Rubenstein, founder of the Russian Music Society.
Oskar Böhme was one of the three notable German trumpet players (the other two being Wilhelm Wurm and Willy Brandt) who decided to take their professional career East in exchange for Russian citizenship – which was required in order to legally work there. Böhme moved to St. Petersburg, where he played cornet in the Mariinsky Theater Orchestra from 1897 (although some sources confirm only 1902) until 1921. During that period, he used his statutory 4-month summer breaks to go on concert tours in Germany and other European countries.
Between 1921-1930 Böhme taught at the Leningrad Military College in St. Petersburg, on Vasilyevsky Island where he lived. Subsequently, he returned to playing with the orchestra, joining the Great Drama Theater (officially known as Gorky Bolshoi Drama Theater, currently named Tovstonogov Bolshoi Drama Theater) where he stayed until 1934 – the year marking the beginning of the “Great Terror”.

Glorious legacy

During his life, and despite his later exile, Oskar Böhme was an esteemed musician, well known from his performance in numerous orchestras, and an accomplished composer with great contribution to Russian and European classical music, and brass music in particular. He left a total of 46 works, including a book of 24 etudes that has been an invaluable study material for several generations of trumpet players, and still is.
The most famous and most frequently performed pieces by Böhme are the Trompetensextett in E-flat minor, op. 30 (published in 1907 – here arranged by Brian Bindner for Brass Ensemble) and his Trumpet Concerto, op. 18 – first published in 1899 as a score for trumpet and piano, with orchestral version added in the following years. Originally written in the key of E minor with the solo for the A trumpet, it has been since transposed (by Franz Herbst in 1941) to F minor to be played on the B-flat trumpet.
The Trumpet Concerto, being the first composition of such scale for trumpet and orchestra, was considered groundbreaking at the time, exhibiting the capabilities of trumpet and bringing the perception of this instrument to a new height. Today, it remains one of the favorite trumpet pieces to perform both on admission and graduation exams, and a culminating example of Böhme’s masterful take on merging German tradition with Russian soul.

Last year, Edward Tarr released a letter about his discovery of Böhm's likely demise. Click here to view that post.