Monday, March 03, 2014

Citing Online Sources

All of you did a great job on your recent papers, but I noticed that not all of you knew how to list online sources in your bibliographies. Here is some advice from the Tippie College of Business website article:

Web versions of printed material

Because web sources are time-sensitive, meaning that web content can change day by day, it is important to include the day of retrieval and the URL from which you quoted the material. You include this in a retrieval statement.
The format for online versions of print publications should basically follow the same format as above, meaning if you’re referencing an online book, you should follow the book format with the addition of the retrieval statement. If you’re referencing an online periodical, you should follow the periodical format with the addition of the retrieval statement.
Note that you should not break the Internet address of the link, even if it requires its own line. Very long URLs, such as those that occur when using an online database, can be shortened by removing the retrieval code. (The retrieval code usually consists of a long string of unintelligible letters and numbers following the end point “htm” or “html.” Remove everything that occurs after that point to shorten.)
Author. (Date of Internet Publication—could be more than a year) “Document Title.” Title of Publication. Retrieved on: Date from Full Web Address, starting with http://

Grant, Linda. (January 13, 1997) “Can Fisher Focus Kodak?” Fortune. Retrieved on August 22, 1997 from
The above is just one example of citing online sources. There are more extensive bibliographic guidelines at

Although I asked for double spacing, which allows the grader room for correction, extended quotations should be single-spaced, since we should assume their are no errors in previously published text. Some sources even suggest indenting block quotes to further identify non-original material.

The University of Iowa Libraries has a good online resources at

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